social cognition research paper

social cognition research paper

This MSc focuses on how individuals construe the social world and the processes that underlie social judgement and behaviour. Roberts, A. C., Robbins, T. W., & Weiskrantz, L. Consider the famous case of Kitty Genovese, a New York resident who was brutally murdered in 1964. (1960). However, the form of mentalism embodied in contemporary social cognition research also parts company from the early structuralists, who took the data provided by introspection to be the primary phenomena of psychological inquiry. Thus, unlike the associative network models (in which some nodes in a network can be active while others are not), schema models assume that if any part of the schema has been activated, then the rest of the schema will also be activated. The social mind facilitates the interaction with other people through cognitive and affective processes that allow to predict what others will do. In a growing program of research, Bargh and colleagues have shown that without the formation of any conscious intention, primed or salient stimuli can trigger spontaneous behavior (e.g., Bargh, Chen, & Burrows, 1996). Seyfarth, R. M., & Cheney, D. L. (1994). Via selective attention, memory, and interpretation, the world can be seen as a flattering, safe, desirable place. In W. Stroebe & M. Hewstone (Eds.). A rapid accumulation of evidence indicates that chronically ill individuals with schizophrenia exhibit marked deficits in social cognition across a range of domains (Salva et al., 2013). Nevertheless, schematic models have been criticized as being too loose and theoretically underspecified (e.g., Alba & Hasher, 1983; Fiske & Linville, 1980). Abstract. … First, it requires that the perceiver detect the biasing influence before the process can initiate (Stapel, Martin, & Schwarz, 1998; Strack & Hannover, 1996). For example, trying not to think stereotypical thoughts about an elderly target resulted in better memory for the most stereotypical characteristics displayed by the target (Macrae, Bodenhausen, Milne, & Wheeler, 1996). Bodenhausen, G. V. (1990). Conversely, having been praised, participants were motivated to imbue the evaluator with credibility, so they tended to activate doctor stereotypes while simultaneously inhibiting African American stereotypes. For strong attitudes, the link between the two nodes will be very strong, and any time the node representing the attitude object gets activated, the activation will be likely to spread to the evaluative node, thereby activating the associated attitude. Biases in the interpretation and use of research results. Srull, T. K., & Wyer, R. S., Jr. (1979). Wegner, D. M., & Pennebaker, J. W. Social cognition is a sub-topic of various branches of psychology that focuses on how people process, store, and apply information about other people and social situations. From this perspective, simple associations are inadequate to account for the complexity of human cognition. Each attribute would constitute one node, and each node would be connected to a central organizing node via links. B., & Jetten, J. Research by Shotland and Straw (1976) subsequently showed that when people observe an ambiguous situation in which a man is harassing a woman on the street, they often assume by default that it is a lover’s quarrel and fail to take any steps to help the woman. The nature of the interaction was manipulated so that the participants would have social acceptance or rejection experiences. In C. Hendrick & M. S. Clark (Eds.). As such, schemas that are goal-relevant or that have been recently or frequently used will be much more likely to be applied. A monitoring process is responsible for checking to see whether undesired responses (e.g., sexist thoughts) are occurring. Indeed, one of the cornerstones of social cognition is the recognition that the mind may be largely unaware of what it is doing; quite commonly, social perceivers may have very little introspective access to the cognitive processes that give rise to their behavioral reactions (Nisbett & Wilson, 1977). Levy, S. R., Stoessner, S. J., & Dweck, C. S. (1998). A second universal assumption regarding mental representation is the notion that new representations are inevitably formed by referencing memory for relevant prior experiences and knowledge. Research in these and several other topic areas confirm the explanatory power of the relatively simple assumptions embodied in the associative network approach. Although there are variants on these assumptions, this brief summary provides a reasonable description of the core ideas of the associative network models. Attention and automaticity in the processing of self-relevant information. Sinclair, L., & Kunda, Z. The GEMS effort was to create a social environment that encouraged healthy eating and exercise, and expanded health literacy in a fun manner, and was accessible to young girls. Kruglanski, A. W., & Webster, D. M. (1996). The abstraction of linguistic ideas. Motivational and emotional controls of cognition. Reactions to a black professional: Motivated inhibition and activation of conflicting stereotypes. When a consistent behavior is encountered (e.g., won the citywide chess tournament), it is assumed to be linked directly to the central concept (Tina) by a relatively strong node, because it fits with preconceptions about this target quite well. Research of this sort shows that although accurate perceptions are important to attainment of control, other powerful needs operate, pushing us toward perceiving the world in ways we want it to be (Kunda, 1990; MacCoun, 1998). How it Works Prices +1 312 56 68 949 Chat now Sign in Order. From this perspective, stereotypes consist of a central node representing a particular social group (e.g., elderly people) that is linked to various concepts that are assumed to characterize group members (e.g., slow, forgetful). The case for motivated reasoning. Research on terror management (e.g., Pyszczynski, Greenberg, & Solomon, 1999) suggests that we have a fundamental motivation to defend ourselves against confronting our own eventual demise. Automaticity in action: The unconscious as the repository of chronic goals and motives. As a starting point for understanding the motivational underpinnings of social cognition, it is useful to consider the general categories of motives that have come under theoretical and empirical scrutiny in social cognition research. Read Research Papers On Social Cognition And Moral Development and other exceptional papers on every subject and topic college can throw at you. To help explain the importance of social cognition in everyday life, this paper will explore what it would perhaps be like to try to live without the capacity to understand self and others. Gardner, Pickett, and Brewer (2000) had participants engage in interactions in a computer chat room. Sinclair, L., & Kunda, Z. The participants tended to form illusory correlations, in which the minority group was perceived to be characterized by negative qualities greater than those of the majority group. Fein, S., & Spencer, S. J. Evidence consistent with these possibilities has emerged in many domains of social cognition, including the study of stereotyping. These assumptions have been explored in the domain of stereotype suppression by several researchers. First, perceivers may selectively attend to stimuli in ways that provide desired outcomes. de Dreu, C. K. W., Koole, S. L., & Oldersma, F. L. (1999). It is typically assumed that this assimilation process occurs because the fortuitously activated concepts are used to disambiguate later information, and the perceiver is presumed to be oblivious to the fact that it is occurring. This recurrent activation of the undesired target stimulus is not a big problem, so long as the operating process can counteract the unwanted response whenever it does exceed the threshold necessary for conscious awareness. Specific theoretical approaches have been much more elaborate in their assumptions—although they still share the key core assumptions that we have outlined. In C. McGarty & S. A. Haslam (Eds.). In a third correction stage, individuals may consider the situational constraints that might have influenced the behavior (e.g., Mommy threatened Hannah with retribution if she failed to share her dessert) and adjust their dispositional inferences accordingly (e.g., perhaps Hannah isn’t so kind after all). Along similar lines, the imposition of secondary tasks can be used to study the efficiency or the resource dependency of the mental processes mediating social responses (e.g., Gilbert, Pelham, & Krull, 1988; Macrae, Milne, & Bodenhausen, 1994). Although in a literal sense the nervous system may not contain schemas or other sorts of hypothesized mental structures, such constructs can be scientifically useful to the extent that they capture some important essence of whatever structures or processes actually do exist within the neural architecture of the brain. Second, as a controlled process, it is likely to require motivation and attentional capacity for its successful execution. Wyer, R. S., Jr., & Carlston, D. E. (1994). A review the IS literature which used Social Cognitive Theory of the past 14 years yielded 62 papers that investigated individual behavior using the SCT perspective. How exactly do psychologists define social cognition? The social cognitive theory (also called socio-cognitive learning theory or model learning) refers to a learning process that proceeds according to a process … Reducing the expression of racial prejudice. Smith, E. R., & Zárate, M. A. Whereas novice drivers can find it harrowing to coordinate all of the requisite activities (shifting gears, monitoring traffic, steering, braking, etc. (1998). Another dispositional quality that can motivate individuated rather than stereotypical impressions is found in persons who experience chronic loss of control (e.g., Edwards & Weary, 1993). Jost, J. T., & Banaji, M. R. (1994). From this perspective, exemplar-based representations are more like a transitory state than like an enduring entity. Research on mental control has undergone a dramatic resurgence in the past decade (for an excellent sampling of research topics, see Wegner & Pennebaker, 1993). In line with this assumption, it was found that priming the African American stereotype resulted in elevated perceptions of hostility on the part of a subsequently encountered, ambiguous target. If you need a psychology research paper written according to all the academic standards, you can always turn to our experienced writers for help. Background: Social cognition - the ability to identify, perceive, and interpret socially relevant information - is an important skill that plays a significant role in successful interpersonal functioning. In the categorization stage, the observed behavior is construed in terms of its trait implications (e.g., Hannah shared her dessert with her brother could be categorized as kind). Hybrid representational models such as these provide even more theoretical flexibility because they can account for both the flexibility of social cognition that is emphasized in the exemplar approach and the stability (sometimes even rigidity) of social cognition that is emphasized in models relying on more generic forms of representation such as schemas. As a consequence, participants who knew about the group memberships of the social targets not only recalled more information about the targets (as revealed in a free recall measure), they also learned more information about Indonesia (as revealed in a multiplechoice test). Wittenbrink, B., Judd, C. M., & Park, B. The mind in the middle: A practical guide to priming and automaticity research. Could the tendency to stereotype minority groups negatively ever be explained in purely cognitive terms, without appealing to these kinds of motivational explanations? Conversely, if they believe that their judgment of a target has been contrasted away from a salient standard of comparison, they will make adjustments that result in judgments in which the target is seen as more similar to the comparison standard. After a representation has been formed, it (and not the source information from which it was originally derived) will be the crucial determinant of observed reactions (e.g., Lingle & Ostrom, 1979; Srull & Wyer, 1983). In real life, our mental processes occur within a complex framework of motivations and affective experiences. Park, Judd, and Ryan (1991) proposed that representations of groups to which one oneself belongs (i.e., in-groups) tend to contain more information about specific exemplars, whereas representations of out-groups tend to consist mainly of generalizations (see also Sherman, Klein, Laskey, & Wyer, 1998). Fazio, R. H. (1986). Bargh, J. Assimilation and contrast as a function people’s willingness and ability to expend effort in forming an impression. Cognitive Learning Theory- Cognitive … Bruner, J. S. (1957). Brewer, M. B. Yet sometimes the truth hurts, and we would feel better if we could avoid it. … High speed scanning in human memory. (1971). However, a recent paper from Cambridge Cognition suggests that deficits in social cognition … 1, 2 Both workshops recommended agendas for future research. As soon as a set of exemplars is activated, it can bias the ongoing stream of information processing, just as a schema is assumed to do. In D. L. Schacter & E. Scarry (Eds.). 2. This form of wishful thinking appears to be a ubiquitous source of bias in beliefbased reasoning (McGuire, 1960). Abstract Aim of this paper is to examine and present the application of social cognition models in the prediction and alternation of health behavior. Stereotype formation and endorsement: The role of implicit theories. This idea is taken even further in the latest representational mechanism to catch the fancy of socialcognitive researchers: parallel distributed memory (often called PDP) models. Stroebe & M. Hewstone (Eds.). It is easier to change health-related behaviors in the young, and the program tried to address the unique and often more acute problem of obesity in African-American young girls. In historical models of this process of dispositional inference (e.g., Jones & Davis, 1965), it was typically assumed that perceivers engage in a fairly extensive deductive reasoning process to determine the trait implications of observed behavior, comparing the effects of the observed behavior with the simulated effects of not performing it or of performing an alternative option. A. Researchers working in this tradition have attempted to specify the factors that determine both the strength and the types of links that form among activated pieces of information, and they have also developed models addressing how these associative structures are used in the process of memory retrieval. One of the key insights to emerge from this research is that our perceptions of and reactions to the social world are often shaped by rapid, automatic processes over which we commonly exercise very little control. Thus, the monitoring process ironically keeps an unwanted thought or response salient in the perceiver’s mind. Social cognitive processes can be clustered in three domains associated with (a) perceptual processing of soc… This general understanding of what faces are like is assumed to have been abstracted from experience with numerous specific faces over time. Whether one believes … Following social rejection, belongingness needs were expected to be activated and to guide subsequent information processing. These qualifications are quite consistent with general idea that even the process of mental control itself is subject to somedegreeofautomation.Withpractice,theinitialeffortfulness of stereotype suppression may be replaced by relative efficiency. For example, Bodenhausen (1990) showed that stereotype-based discrimination covaried with circadian fluctuations in mental energy. Get discount 10% for the first order. Situational variations in need for closure can be created, for example, by manipulating the deadline for judgments. After the chat room experience, all participants read a diary that contained information about both social and individual events. Prejudice as self-image maintenance: Affirming the self through derogating others. Whereas most cognitive psychology experiments attempt to eliminate the role played by these factors, social cognition researchers have had to increasingly recognize that an understanding of how the social mind works must include a consideration of how basic processes of perception, memory, and inference are influenced by motivation and emotion.

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