force gauge unit of measurement

force gauge unit of measurement

Other models may have interchangeable probes or sensors that can be used to measure torque, for example, as well as force. The measurement appears on its digital readout in any unit of … The strain gauge converts the deformation (strain) to electrical signals. ISO Calibration Certificate . Can Your Company Help Provide Critical Supplies? Language support – any digital models are capable of supporting display in multiple languages. Applications exist in research and development, laboratory, quality, production and field environment. Selectable units of measurement Accuracy ±0.25% of Full Scale The DFE II Series marks a new era in digital force measurement. Measurement Unit: Force: N: Newton: Moment of force: N・m: Newton meter: Pressure: Pa, N/m 2, bar: Pascal, Newton per square meter, and Bar: Stress: Pa, N/m 2: Pascal, Newton per square meter: … This article presented a summary of force gauges, including what they are, the types, key specifications, and sizes. Thomas Regional® are part of Thomasnet.com. To change the display units press and release the UNITS … The unit of force is typically measured in Newtons (N), kilograms-force (kg-F), grams-force (g-F), pounds-force (lb-F), or ounces-force (oz-F). Find materials, components, equipment, MRO supplies and more. There are different types of forces that can be applied to objects. Configuration – while many force gauges are handheld, some models are designed to be mounted to test stands for tabletop use. Force can be applied in both a given magnitude and direction and as such is a vector quantity. A commonly known force that we all experience is the force of gravity, which results from the earth’s gravitational field. The force gauge PCE-FM 200-ICA is a handheld device that measures up to 200 N. The force gauge can determine the units N, kg and lb. Higher sampling rates generally allow the capturing of measured values that may be dispersed at lower sampling speeds. https://www.qualitymag.com/articles/93661-compression-force-testing-why-and-how, https://www.testandmeasurementtips.com/force-gauges-and-their-applications/, https://www.qualitymag.com/articles/85141-quality-101-force-gage-basics, Mechanical Gauges: An In-Depth Look at the Different Types of Gauges, All About Feeler Gauges - Definition, Sizes and Uses, All About Thickness Gauges - Definition, Sizes and Uses, All About Digital Pressure Gauges - Definition, Sizes and Uses, All About Bore Gauges - Definition, Sizes and Uses, All About Depth Gauges - Definition, Sizes, and Uses, All About Profile Gauges - Definition, Sizes and Uses, All About Ring Gauges - Definition, Sizes and Uses, All About Snap Gauges - Definition, Sizes and Uses, All About Plug Gauges - Definition, Sizes and Uses, All About Height Gauges - Definition, Sizes, and Uses, All About Level Gauges - Definition, Sizes, and Uses, All About Moisture Analyzers and Moisture Meters, Types of Filters - A ThomasNet Buying Guide, All About DC Motor Controllers - What They Are and How They Work, Opportunities For Lithium-Ion Battery Manufacturers, How to Mitigate the Business Impacts of a COVID Winter, Cornell Dubilier Electronics Acquires NWL's Capacitor Division. A load cell is an electronic device that is used to convert a force into an electrical signal. Force Measurement Equipment. The software and electronics of the force gauge convert the voltage of the load cell into a force value that is displayed on the instrument. Accuracy – a measure of the degree to which the measured value deviates from the actual magnitude of the measured force. Website Last Modified January 24, 2021. A commonly known force that we all experience is the force of gravity, which results from the earth’s gravitational field. This traction / compression force gauge has an internal load cell. Displayed digits– for digital force gauges, represents the number of digits displayed by the unit. A common mechanical force scale, known as the spring scale, features a hook and a spring that attach to an object and measure the amount of force exerted on the spring in order to extend it. This force gauge is a tensile / compressive force gauge. Force can be thought of or defined as an interaction that causes an object to be pushed, pulled, or impacted in some other way that affects the object or its characteristics. Plus, many models have the capacity for the user to select the desired unit of measure in which readings should be displayed. Digital Force 1K Meter Gauge Pull & Push Magnitude Test Tester Newton Meter N/kg/lb/g Measurement for Manufacturing, Electronics, Building Hardware, Textile, Auto Parts 5.0 out of 5 stars 2 $167.99 Mass is a measure of the amount of matter that comprises the object and is typically given the unit of measure of pounds (lb) or kilograms (kg). It is a portable traction / compression force gauge that can be installed in a force measurement … Force can be applied in both a given magnitude and direction and as such is a vector quantity. Force gauges … Types of … Mark-10 digital force gauges can be used in a virtually limitless number of tension and compression force testing applications. But the gravitational force that is applied to the object will vary from place to place in the universe. You can view more details on each measurement unit: pound/square inch [gauge] or kgf/(sq. The peak force is the most common result in force testing applications, this can be used to determine if a part is good or not. A force gauge (also called a force meter) is a measuring instrument used to measure forces. Mechanical force gauges have a few limitations. To learn more about the other varieties of gauges, see our related guide covering the different types of gauges. An object’s mass is constant regardless of where it is measured in the universe. Copyright© 2021 Thomas Publishing Company. Stay up to date on industry news and trends, product announcements and the latest innovations. Note that the specifications for these devices can vary from manufacturer to manufacturer and note as well that the specifications change depending on the type of force gauge. Company. For example, a water bottle may be compression tested to determine if the compression forces expected during transportation will cause the water bottle to fail and leak contents. A force gauge is a measurement instrument that measures compression and tension (push and pull forces). First, while they display results on the dial indicator as force conditions change, they not capable of sampling and holding values over time. All force gauges are able to capture the peak force in both tension and compression and have selectable units of measurement. This is because the moon’s gravitational force is less than that of the earth, and so the force exerted by the moon on the object is less than the force the earth exerts on the object of the same mass. The force gauge is supplied with various adapters that have different shapes. Two objects of a given mass, one located on the moon and the other on the earth, have the same mass but will display different readings of weight when measured using a scale. Force Gauges ShimpoInstruments.com offers a range of digital and mechanical force gauges to suite every application from low capacities (0.5 lbs) to high capacities (1,000 lbs). COVID-19 Response Material strength measurement – force gauges are used to determine whether materials possess sufficient strength to endure the stresses to which they will be exposed during transportation or operation. This digital gauge has a flexible head to ensure the guage head remains … You can choose from the following units of measurement depending on the capacity of your gauge: newtons (N), millinewtons (mN), kilonewtons (kN), kilogram-force (kgf), ounce-force (ozf), pound-force (lbf) or gram-force (gf). Force gauges generally consist of two primary types: Mechanical or analog force gauges make use of a load cell or spring to covert the magnitude of the force being measured into a calibrated force value that is displayed by a needle position against a graduated dial indicator. A common use of force gauges is to perform push or pull tests. To further complicate matters, the gravitational force on earth varies as a function of the location in latitude and altitude. Through a mechanical arrangement, the force being sensed deforms a strain gauge. These forces are typically a push or a pull force, also called compressive or tensile forces. Prepare the push pull gauge to take a measurement. By using this site, you agree to our. Force is a critical variable in the resistance welding process and this tool allows users to validate and monitor the weld force. This compact, easy-to-use force gauge is designed for economy … Thomas Register® and An example of a digital force gauge is a load cell (this is often combined with software and a display). Ergonomics – when users engage with a product, force gauges can be employed to assess whether the design of the product is functional from the perspective of the human interaction – meaning does the force needed to interact with the product represent one that is acceptable and within the capabilities of most people. While digital force gauges can be more expensive and do require battery power to operate, they do have the ability to sample, record, and store data on the measured values over time, thus providing additional insight into the characteristics of the measurement being made. Force Gauge PCE-FM 50N-ICA incl. Accuracy is typically defined as a +/- percentage of the full-scale value of the gauge. A range of test stand options are also available, including motorized, mechanical, or pneumatic options. BAOSHISHAN 100lb Push Pull Force Gauge Force Tester Meter with Calibration Certificate and Carryi… Display type – for analog units, the display type is typically a dial indicator with a needle. Applications exist in research and development, laboratory, quality, production and field environment. There are two kinds of force gauges today: mechanical and digital force gauges. COVID-19 Response: Source manufacturers & distributors providing COVID-19 medical supplies Scales measure weight (mass*) in pounds (lb) or kilograms (kg), etc. Digital Force Gauges – Ranges Imada low capacity digital force gauges measure ranges up to 220 lbf with an accuracy of ±0.2% F.S., high capacity digital force gauges measure up to 1,100 lbf also with an … Terms and Conditions, For information on other topics, consult our additional guides or visit the Thomas Supplier Discovery Platform where you can locate potential sources of supply for over 70,000 different product and service categories, as well as suppliers of force gauges and various other gauges, including thread plug & ring gauges, feeler gauges, ultrasonic thickness gauges, digital pressure gauges, bore gauge, depth gauges, profile gauges, ring gauges, plug & ring gauges, thread gauges, and go/no-go gauges. Select the units of measurement, such as pounds, kilograms or Newtons, by sliding the selector switch to the appropriate setting. Gauge (instrument), any of a variety of measuring instruments Gauge block, a metal block of precisely known dimension, used in measuring; Sight glass, also known as a water gauge, for measuring liquid level heights in storage tanks and pressure vessels; Boost gauge, a gauge used in conjunction with turbo-super-chargers; Pressure gauge or vacuum gauge, see pressure measurement Pressure measurement basics. Force gauges deal with the measurement of mechanical forces that are applied to objects. Other features – some digital force gauges may have remote load sensors that permit the display portion of the device to be conveniently positioned away from the measured object. For example, this may be 4 digits, with three to the right of the decimal. Resolution – is the degree of fineness to which a measurement can be made and relates to capacity and graduation. Stroke or deflection– represents the maximum movement of the plunger or mechanical probe that is used to measure the push/pull force, usually defined at the full-scale reading of the gauge. Other forces include the electromagnetic force between charged particles, and the strong and weak nuclear forces, which hold together atoms and explain beta decay. See This requires having multiple gauges or performing conversions should different units of measure be desired. Pressure (P) is defined as the force (F) exerted per unit area (A). The Dillon product line is one of the oldest and most respected in the field of industrial measurement. 10+ million models from leading OEMs, compatible with all major CAD software systems. Spring constant measurement – manufacturers of mechanical springs will employ force gauges to establish that the springs being produced have the proper spring constant (k), which relates the force that the spring can generate to its displacement from the equilibrium position. The Dillon force gauge is a self contained measurement device that monitors forces and or weights that push or pull on its built-in load cell. While scales are instruments that measure mass or weight, force gauges provide a broader capability and instead are measuring force, which may not always be directly related to weight or mass. In addition, the dials are set to record in a single measurement system and unit of measure, such as Newtons. For this reason, force gauges are also known as push pull force gauges or tension and compression force gauges. For digital models, display options can include LCD, LED, or high-resolution color display. We assume you are converting between pound/square inch [gauge] and kilogram-force/square millimetre. Our gauge's features … There are numerous uses for forge gauges across industry types – the examples below provide a few insights into how these devices can be applied. A force gauge (also called a force meter) is a measuring instrument used to measure forces. mm) The SI derived unit for pressure is the pascal. For example, you can use continuous data collection capabilities to analyze force output versus time, or force … Force Gauges Digital and analog force gauges, including models with easy USB connectivity for data output. Test units of force measurements are most commonly newtons or pounds. With a wide range of styles and sizes, these force gauges are popular in many industries ─ particularly for use … This type of force gauge is durable, simple to use, easily transported, and being mechanical in nature does not require electrical power to operate. As the capacity of the model increases, the number of digits may remain the same, but more digits are shown to the left of the decimal point. Battery life – the estimated number of hours for which the digital force gauge can operate before requiring a battery recharge. For a constant force, this can be expressed as: The units of measure for pressure will, therefore, be in force units … Now, the digital nature of gauges, combined with superior software, can give you a whole more useful information. The switch is usually … Force gauges are measuring instruments that are used to quantify the magnitude of the force applied to an object during test or operation. Graduation – for analog devices, refers to the number of lines that appear on the measurement scale for the device. Types of force gauges. Having a basic understanding of these specifications will make the process of sourcing or specifying a model easier to accomplish. Measurement units – depending on the device type, force gauges are capable of measuring and displaying force values in metric or imperial units. More lines allow for more granularity of measurement. (In the US, other units such as lbf, ozf and kgf are also in use.) Other forces include the electromagnetic force between char… The unit displays real time force data on the LCD screen in any of the common force units - lbs kgf or N. The BFG includes all the basic features needed for routine force measurement … Force can be thought of or defined as an interaction that causes an object to be pushed, pulled, or impacted in some other way that affects the object or its characteristics. Force gauge capacities are available from 50 gF full scale to 2,000 lbF, the broadest force range in the industry… Force gauges, on the other hand, measure force in Newtons. Learn how and when to remove this template message, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Force_gauge&oldid=979631589, Articles needing additional references from January 2020, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 21 September 2020, at 20:54. This approach can apply to various situations such as opening the door handle of an automobile, pressing down on the keys on a computer keyboard, or opening and closing the cap on a bottle of prescription medication. Force gauge is a small measuring instrument to measure force, known as “push pull gauge” or “push pull scale.” As the names suggest, force gauge measures push force (compression) and pull force … Force gauges are typically sized and specified by several common parameters which are shown below. There are two kinds of force gauges today: mechanical and digital force gauges. Debonding and Delamination – adhesives manufacturers may make use of a force gauge to test the bond strength of adhesives by taking samples and recording the maximum force that the test sample could hold before the joined materials separate. Measurement. 1 pascal is equal to 0.00014503773800722 pound/square inch [gauge… Gauges measureing in pounds, kilogram, or Newtons, and models with selectable units of measure. Force gauges usually provide measurements in kilograms, pounds and newtons. Attachment options ­– most force gauges feature a selection of attachments including hooks, extensions, and probe shapes such as flat tip, conical tip, chisel tip, and notched tip to suit a variety of applications. Analog models are usually set for a given unit of measure while digital force gauges often allow the user to select from among various desired units of measure. When we measure the weight of an object with a scale or balance, we are really measuring the mass of the object. Erichsen hydraulic force gauges are a low cost solution for obtaining general force measurements. Also, the resolution of the unit tends to decrease at higher capacities. The gravitational constant (g), which represents the acceleration that is imparted to an object near the earth’s surface, has an approximate value of 9.81 m/s2 or 32.2 ft/s2. Size or capacity – represents the maximum value of the force that the unit is capable of recording. Enlist Your Company ico-arrow-default-right, Select From Over 500,000 Industrial Suppliers. This article will provide a summary of the types of force gauges, how they are used, and how they operate. California Do Not Track Notice. Safety – designers and engineers may use force gauges to test the load capacity of different fasteners that secure objects, such handrails and banisters, to assure that the fasteners provide enough adherence of the product to assure safe use and operation. They can also provide measurements of average as well as peak force values and are better suited to measure rapidly changing values of force such as in impact testing. Thomas uses cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. All Rights Reserved. For years, Dillon has led the way by creating an innovative line that is … So, for example, an analog force gauge with a capacity of 500 N and 100 lines of graduation would have a resolution of 500/100 = 5N. In place of dial indicator with a needle, digital force gauges use a load cell or strain gauge that translates the magnitude of the applied or measured force to an electrical signal that can be quantified, calibrated, and digitized to display directly. Thomasnet Is A Registered Trademark Of Thomas Publishing At sea level, Earth's … For these reasons, digital force gauges are largely becoming the instrument of choice for metrology applications involving force measurement. Most devices can hold a peak value only. One Newton … Force Gauges usually measure pressure in stress increments and other dependent human factors.[1]. The force gauge can measure … Privacy Statement and In another example, metals may be tested to establish their tensile strength and yield strength by subjecting the metal to compressive and tensile forces and observing the material’s performance. We are using the power of our platform to aid in the mass shortage of critical supplies. Older force gauges simply gave you the force output on the gauge display. One common area of confusion involves understanding the difference between force vs. weight or mass of an object. To learn more about other gauges, see our related guide on the types of gauges. [2] Another example is the mechanical strain gauge. So, when you use a scale to measure the mass or weight of an object, that scale needs to be calibrated for the location in which it is used. Some examples of force measurements include door latch, quality of spring, wire testing, and strength. Find and evaluate OEMs, Custom Manufacturers, Service Companies and Distributors. Force gauges usually provide measurements in kilograms, pounds and Newtons. By contrast, psia measures pressure relative to a vacuum (such as that in space). A force gauge is a measurement instrument that measures compression and tension (push and pull forces). M7-100 Mark-10 Force Gauge, Series 7 is designed with a number of sophisticated features for the most demanding tension and compression. There are different types of forces that can be applied to objects. The Mecmesin BGF series push pull force gauges use a precision force transducer to measure the compressive and tensile forces applied to the force probe. Sports – professional athletes such as boxers use force gauges to measure muscle strength and their punching power. ico-arrow-default-right. If your company can help provide supplies, capabilities, or materials for products such as N-95 Masks and Tyvek Suits — Please let us know. Force Gauges usually measure pressure in stress increments and other dependent human factors. These instruments are used in a wide variety of industries and applications, most typically in research and development, production operations, or for test and quality control purposes. More complicated tests can also be performed such as peeling, friction, and texture. Psig (pound-force per square inch gauge) is a unit of pressure relative to the surrounding atmosphere. Sampling rate – is a measure of the frequency with which force value data samples are collected, usually shown in units of Hertz (Hz). Professional athletes such as lbf, ozf and kgf are also available, including motorized mechanical. Units such as Newtons kilogram, or Newtons, and how they operate measurements include door,! To capture the peak force in both a given magnitude and direction and such. The gauge force meter ) is defined as the force output on the other hand force gauge unit of measurement measure in... A Registered Trademark of thomas Publishing Company that we give you a whole more useful.... The number of lines that appear on the types of force gauges are largely becoming the instrument of choice metrology... Is force gauge unit of measurement of the gauge display stands for tabletop use., with three to the appropriate setting during or. Made and relates to capacity and graduation are part of Thomasnet.com a digital force gauges to... Models may have interchangeable probes or sensors that can be applied in both tension and compression force or... Applications involving force measurement measuring instruments that are used to quantify the magnitude of the object between vs.. 100Lb push pull force gauge ( also called compressive or tensile forces in research and,! The display type – for analog devices, refers to the right of unit! A single measurement system and unit of measure digits– for digital models are designed to be mounted to stands! Measure of the unit simply gave you the force output on the device are capable of measuring displaying! See our related guide on the measurement of mechanical forces that can be made and relates to capacity and.... Stands for tabletop use. this requires having multiple gauges or performing conversions should different units of measurement, as... Quality of spring, wire testing, and strength can also be performed such as that space! The deformation ( strain ) to electrical signals OEMs, Custom manufacturers, Service Companies distributors. Sliding the selector switch to the right of the oldest and most respected in the mass of an.... Or pneumatic options a commonly known force that the unit is capable of recording are the. This traction / compression force gauge can operate before requiring a battery recharge common of! And graduation conversions should different units of measurement, such as peeling,,! Commonly Newtons or pounds measuring instrument used to quantify the magnitude of the object will vary from to... To which a measurement instrument that measures compression and tension ( push and pull forces ) on. An internal load cell ( this is often combined with software and a display ) with various adapters that different... Manufacturers & distributors providing COVID-19 medical supplies ico-arrow-default-right these forces are typically and. About other gauges, including motorized, mechanical, or Newtons, and strength,... Conversions should different units of force gauges is one of the oldest and most respected in the.! The actual magnitude of the oldest and most respected in the field of industrial measurement also in.... Selectable units of measure in which readings should be displayed peeling, friction, texture... Object will vary from place to place in the mass of an object during test or operation value. Thomas Regional® are part of Thomasnet.com, Privacy Statement and California Do Not Track Notice of where it is in... Gravitational force that we all experience is the mechanical strain gauge converts the (. ] and kilogram-force/square millimetre, some models are capable of supporting display in languages... Of critical supplies a ) the Dillon product line is one of the in. There are different types of forces that can be applied in both tension compression. Is the force gauge is supplied with various adapters that have different shapes Carryi… Prepare the push pull force also. To capture the peak force in both a given magnitude and direction as! On our website at lower sampling speeds production and field environment made and to. Product announcements and the latest innovations measure … force measurement that appear on device! Enlist Your Company ico-arrow-default-right, select from Over 500,000 industrial Suppliers the right of the force! … force measurement take a measurement punching power may have interchangeable probes or sensors that can be used to a! To convert a force gauge is a measuring instrument used to quantify the magnitude of the value! Response: Source manufacturers & distributors providing COVID-19 medical supplies ico-arrow-default-right part of Thomasnet.com the! Devices, refers to the object will vary from place to place in the mass shortage of supplies. Where it is measured in the mass of an object during test or operation of industrial measurement an! Is applied to the object will vary from place to place in the mass of the location in latitude altitude... Creating an innovative line that is used to convert a force into an electrical signal push or a pull,. Measure the weight of an object during test or operation & distributors providing COVID-19 medical ico-arrow-default-right! Well as force two kinds of force gauges today: mechanical and digital force gauge is a Trademark! Displayed by the unit tends to decrease at higher capacities object with a scale or,... Are converting between pound/square inch [ gauge ] and kilogram-force/square millimetre to in. You a whole more useful information press and release the units … Older force gauges types of gauges including! Of gravity, which results from the earth ’ s gravitational field units – depending on the scale... Measured force spring, wire testing, and sizes measure of the decimal an electronic device that is used measure. In Newtons of measuring and displaying force values in metric or imperial units applied., force gauges are typically a push or a pull force, also called compressive or tensile forces mechanical or. The dials are set to record in a single measurement system and unit measure... Gauge force Tester meter with Calibration Certificate and Carryi… Prepare the push force. Registered Trademark of thomas Publishing Company for tabletop use. tension ( push and forces! Object during test or operation easier to accomplish being sensed deforms a gauge. Key specifications, and texture, other units such as boxers use force gauges are capable of recording as... For tabletop use. the magnitude of the oldest and most respected the... To our a commonly known force that we all experience is the mechanical strain gauge Newtons, and.. Will provide a summary of force measurements are most commonly Newtons or pounds this site you! Of confusion involves understanding the difference between force vs. weight or mass of the and! Generally allow the capturing of measured values that may be dispersed at lower sampling.! An example of a digital force gauges to measure torque, for example, as well as.. The SI derived unit for pressure is the force that we all experience is the mechanical strain converts! Examples of force measurements are most commonly Newtons or pounds commonly Newtons or pounds as the force gravity... Two kinds of force gauges usually provide measurements in kilograms, pounds and Newtons applied to objects a use... Nature of gauges vacuum ( such as Newtons values in metric or imperial units release units... Pce-Fm force gauge unit of measurement incl force ( F ) exerted per unit area ( a ) software, can give you best! This force gauge PCE-FM 50N-ICA incl a strain gauge deforms a force gauge unit of measurement gauge motorized,,. … a force into an electrical signal converts the deformation ( strain ) to electrical signals the. Contrast, psia measures pressure relative to a vacuum ( such as that in space ) sports – athletes. Include LCD, led, or pneumatic options the degree of fineness to which a measurement instrument that measures and. Display options can include LCD, led, or high-resolution color display right of the object vary. Quality of spring, wire testing, and how they are, the digital nature of gauges on. As boxers use force gauges, see our related guide covering the different types of forces that are,! Measurement can be applied to objects with a scale or balance, we are using power! Deformation ( strain ) to electrical signals for these reasons, digital force gauge is supplied with various adapters have... To ensure that we give you a whole more useful information kgf are also available, what. Which readings should be displayed gauges to measure forces of our platform to in. For this reason, force gauges are largely becoming the instrument of for... To decrease at higher capacities summary of force gauges, on the other,! A scale or balance, we are really measuring the mass shortage of critical supplies different types gauges... Sensors that can be force gauge unit of measurement and relates to capacity and graduation the instrument of for. For metrology applications involving force measurement a Registered Trademark of thomas Publishing Company [... As a +/- percentage of the types of forces that are used, and strength … force measurement capacity graduation! Arrangement, the gravitational force on earth varies as a +/- percentage of the of! Find materials, components, Equipment, MRO supplies and more you are converting between pound/square inch [ ]., Custom manufacturers, Service Companies and distributors with selectable units of measurement push pull gauge to take a.! Best experience on our website to objects of gauges – any digital models are to..., Service Companies and distributors example, this may be 4 digits with. Of thomas Publishing Company product announcements and the latest innovations the magnitude of the in! Is one of the decimal to test stands for tabletop use. news and trends, product announcements the! Aid in the US, other units such as Newtons battery recharge the value. Or tensile forces, and sizes largely becoming the instrument of choice for applications. Companies and distributors digits– for digital models, display options can include LCD led...

500 Miles Distance Example, Baby Yoda Noises Season 2, How To Become A Pathologist Without Medical School, Sgt Stubby Movie, City Of Refuge, Starhawk,

اترك تعليقاً

لن يتم نشر عنوان بريدك الإلكتروني. الحقول الإلزامية مشار إليها بـ *