This dichotomy would also give way to a division between the two dominant sects of Islam, Sunni and Shia. URI Kids: World Religions We hope the information contained in these pages helps to serve as an introduction to some of the many religions and spiritual traditions in the world. Christian scripture incorporates both the Torah (referred to by Christians as the Old Testament) with the story of Jesus, his teachings, and those of his contemporaneous disciples (the New Testament). 5. For the 1996 Thomas Patrick Burke book published by Blackwell, see, Religious movement with major international spread, The examples and perspective in this article.  Even history professors have now taken note of these complications and advise against teaching "world religions" in schools. Islam is one of the great monotheistic world religions practiced today. In the 18th century, "heresy" was clarified to mean Judaism and Islam; along with paganism, this created a fourfold classification which spawned such works as John Toland's Nazarenus, or Jewish, Gentile, and Mahometan Christianity, which represented the three Abrahamic religions as different "nations" or sects within religion itself, the "true monotheism. To seal the covenant, Abraham became the first recipient of the ritualistic circumcision. Initially an informal collection of beliefs and mythologies, Shinto was less a religion than a distinctly Japanese form of cultural observance. Islam teaches that Allah is the only God and that Muhammed is his messenger. Despite a small population of adherents, the Druze nonetheless play an important role in the development of their region (known in historical shorthand as the Levant). , The modern meaning of the phrase "world religion," putting non-Christians at the same level as Christians, began with the 1893 Parliament of the World's Religions in Chicago. World's Largest Religion Groups by Population 1945 - YouTube Shinto is unique among religions. Of course, many people do! The traditions and beliefs surrounding Buddhism can be traced to the original teachings of Gautama Buddha, a sagely thinker who is believed to have lived between the fourth and sixth centuries BCE. Rastafarianism is a newer religious movement that follows in the Abrahamic tradition of monotheism, referring to the singular deity as Jah. Countless religious traditions inform the inhabitants of the African continent, each with its own distinct practices and beliefs based on region and ethnicity. * There is a brief description of each, their view of God, and what a person can gain from that religion. Some religions emerged around established kingdoms and settlements — especially in the monarchical societies of pre-Latin America — whereas others emerged around tribes that moved within and between regions. The tenth in this line of successors, Guru Gobind Singh, named the scriptures as his successor. The population numbers by religion are computed by a combination of census reports and population surveys (in countries where religion data is not collected in census, for example the United States or France), but results can vary widely depending on the way questions are phrased, the definitions of religion used and the bias of the agencies or organizations conducting the survey. Highly informative resources to keep your education journey on track. Though no one figure or group is credited with its founding, Hinduism is the third largest religion in the world today. Abrahamic religions originate in West Asia, Indian religions in the Indian subcontinent (South Asia) and East Asian religions in East Asia. Lord knows, somebody had to come up with the idea for each of these religions in the first place. Confucianism was a dominant form of philosophy and religious orientation in ancient China, one that emerged from the teachings of Chinese philosopher Confucius, who lived 551–479 BCE. Religions of the World Religions of the World is a collection of animated films exploring the origins and stories of a variety of religions. Shinto is religious tradition native to Japan. In the early 1930s, a movement of Rastafarians espoused that the faithful were living in an African diaspora, scattered from their homelands by colonization and slavery. Reza Aslan is an Iranian-American author, commentator and religious scholar. Roughly 3–4% of the Japanese population identifies as being part of a Shinto sect or congregation. Indeed, the strong work ethic advocated by Confucianism is seen as a major catalyst for the late 20th century rise of the Asian economies. This oppression would play a major role in the Afrocentric interpretation of the Bible favored by Rastafari. Theologies vary widely, representing a range of monotheistic, polytheistic, and animistic beliefs. Whether to rely only on official government-provided statistics, Whether to use multiple sources and ranges or single "best source(s)", Religions by country according to The World Factbook - CIA, This page was last edited on 5 January 2021, at 19:07. Judaism is said to have begun with the figure of Abraham, a man living in the Land of Canaan — a geographical expanse likely encompassing portions of Phoenicia, Philistia, and Israel. To Huxley, and the agnostic and athiest thinkers who followed, theistic or gnostic religions lack scientific basis, and therefore, should be rejected. The central governing body of the Bahá’í faith, a nine-member council called the Universal House of Justice, operates from Haifa, Israel. Islam is a monotheistic religion that — like Christianity and Judaism — traces its roots to the Garden of Eden, Adam, and the prophet Abraham. Though too extensive to name, the following list — borrowed from Wikipedia — identifies the most notable African diaspora religions: Native American religions encompass the broad and diverse set of customs, beliefs, and practices observed by the indigenous populations that thrived in the Americas before the arrival of European colonists. In other words, religion is so diverse and nuanced a subject that it’s nearly impossible to encapsulate all of the world’s major religions in just a few words. The French Revolution was driven by the prioritization of human reason over the abstract authority of religion. A term adapted in modern historical discourse, gnosticism concerns the variety of religious systems and beliefs in the ancient world that emerged from the Judeo-Christian tradition. Thus, Abraham is seen not just as the first prophet of Judaism, but also of the Christian and Islamic faiths that sprung from the Judaic tradition. Jainism’s primary tenets are ahiṃsā (nonviolence), anekāntavāda (many-sidedness), aparigraha (nonattachment) and asceticism (abstinence from pleasure). Like … Its more than one billion adherents comprise more than 15% of the world’s population. In exchange, God promised to make Abraham’s offspring a “Chosen People.” This Chosen People would become the Children of Israel, and eventually, the Jewish faith. Historically, the Baháʼí Faith arose in 19th-century Persia, in the context of, Spirituality and Psychiatry - Page 236, Chris Cook, Andrew Powell, A. C. P. Sims - 2009. See: http://www.fredonia.edu/summer/ - Summer Session I or II. This belief system rejects theology as well as the constructs of organized religion. Abraham accepted, becoming the father not just of Judaism but of the various monotheistic (or Abrahamic) religions that followed. In the centuries to follow, Islam would simultaneously produce countless wars of succession and a growing sense of spiritual unity within the Arab World. Jainism is an ancient Indian religion that — according to its adherents — can be traced through a succession of 24 sagely teachers. Though its scriptures and traditions inform countless subsequent sects and ideologies, Buddhism is largely divided into two branches: Theravada — the goal of which is to achieve freedom from ignorance, material attachment, and anger by practicing the Noble Eightfold Path, all in pursuit of a sublime state called Nirvana; and Mahayana — the goal of which is aspire to Buddhahood by practicing the Zen principles of self-control, meditation, and expression of the insight of Buddha in your daily life, especially for the benefit of others, all to the end of achieving bodhisattva, or an ongoing cycle of rebirth by which you can continue to enlighten others. Often, like the traditional African religions they emerged from, these groups shared common threads regarding reverence for the spirits, veneration of the dead, and similar creation mythologies. Self-reported figures from 1999; North Korea only (South Korean followers are minimal according to census).  Another group with supra-regional influence are Afro-American religion, which have their origins in Central and West Africa. Statistics published in: Katharina Wenzel-Teuber, David Strait. Many who characterize themselves as atheists argue that a lack of proof or scientific process prevents the belief in a deity. Islam With an estimated 1.6 billion adherents, Islam is the world's second most popular religion. The primary texts retelling this period of history are called the Vedas and would significantly inform the so-called Hindu Synthesis. Therefore, Hannah Adams's early encyclopedia, for example, had its name changed from An Alphabetical Compendium of the Various Sects... to A Dictionary of All Religions and Religious Denominations. Religion touches on everything about the world around us, from the explanations we seek for the creation of the universe and our purpose within to the higher power behind these things to the way we behave, treat one another, and interact with society to the values, laws, and beliefs that govern us. Today, there are between 800,000 and one million Druze adherents, nearly all of them concentrated in the Middle East. He called for activity, creativity, fidelity, self-control, and purity. Zoroastrianism is considered one of the world’s oldest religions, and some of its earliest ideas — messianism, posthumous judgment, and the duality of heaven and hell — are believed to have informed the evolution of Judaism, as well as Gnosticism, Christianity, and Islam. Guru Nanak was succeeded by a subsequent line of nine gurus, who served as spiritual leaders. One way to define a major religion is by the number of current adherents. Use of the term originated in the ancient world and was meant to degrade those who rejected commonly accepted religious precepts. The following looks at the major world religions... Hinduism, New Age Spirituality, Buddhism, Islam, and Christianity. (Try capturing everything about Buddhism in just 250 words!) The Buddha lived and taught in the eastern part of ancient India, providing the template for a faith based on the ideas of moral rectitude, freedom from material attachment or desire, the achievement of peace and illumination through meditation, and a life dedicated to wisdom, kindness, and compassion. The diversity of customs and beliefs represented here is as diverse as the major population centers, tribes, and small nomadic bands that inhabited the Americas for millennia. This theory began in the 18th century with the goal of recognizing the relative levels of civility in societies, which in many modern cultures is considered offensive. These existential questions are central to the five major world religions -- and that's not all that connects these faiths. Jethro’s status as a hidden prophet is an important conceptual dimension of the Druze culture. Worldwide percentage of Adherents by Religion, 2015. John Bellaimey explains the intertwined histories and cultures of Hinduism, Judaism, Buddhism, Christianity and Islam. As Buddhism became the dominant spiritual force in China, Confucianism declined in practice. In his trademark honest and open writing style, Hamilton helps answer questions such as: Why are there so many different religions? The first spiritual leader of Sikhism, Guru Nanak, lived from 1469 to 1539 and taught that a good, spiritual life must be intertwined with a secular life well-lived. Today, there are various independent Confucian congregations, but it was only in 2015 that congregation leaders in China gathered together to form the Holy Confucian Church. They can also produce philosophical innovation, ethical reform, and the advancement of social justice. The Jewish faith is based upon a covenant between Abraham and God in which the former renounced idolatry and accepted the latter as the only divine authority. Rastafari hold the Christian Bible as their primary scripture but offer an interpretation highly connected to their own political and geographical realities. Religious traditions fall into super-groups in comparative religion, arranged by historical origin and mutual influence. Confucianism had a profound impact on the development of Eastern legal customs and the emergence of a scholar class (and with it, a meritocratic way of governing). And with the emergence of communism and Maoism in the 20th century, the mainstream practice of Confucianism was largely at an end. Each of these entries is a surface-level look at the religion in question. Other important concepts include karma, which asserts a universal relationship between action, intent, and consequences; samsara, the Hindu concept of rebirth; and a wide range of Yogic practices merging the body, mind, and elements. This may be one reason that the Druze, while participating actively in the politics and affairs of their home nations, shield their customs and practices from the eyes of outsiders. Today, the Bahá’í faith has somewhere between five and seven million adherents around the world. This was considered the germinal moment in the emergence of the modern religious tradition. Informal or unorganized religions are especially difficult to count. More important than the metaphysical, Guru Nanak argued, is a life in which one enacts the will of God. Christianity has seen countless reformation movements, which spawned innumerable sects and offshoot denominations. , In the latter half of the 20th century, the category of "world religion" fell into serious question, especially for drawing parallels between vastly different cultures, and thereby creating an arbitrary separation between the religious and the secular. 100 years after religion is dead and gone, what will the world look like? It is, by its intent, a concise look at major world religions. Islam holds that good behavior and adherence will lead to an afterlife in paradise, whereas disregard for Muhammed’s teachings will lead to damnation. In Islam, the Quran mentions three different categories: Muslims, the People of the Book, and idol worshipers. Each had its own linguistic, spiritual, and ritualistic customs, generally rooted in their respective histories and their new geographic surroundings. Historians observe that while Abraham almost certainly lived more than 3,000 years ago, literary liberties taken with the scriptures make it impossible to ascertain exactly when he lived. Islam holds that God spoke to Muhammed through the archangel Gabriel some time around 600 CE, delivering the revelations that would form the Quran. This dichotomy between internal conflict and cultural unity remains a presence in the Islamic faith today. This is merely an introduction. Its primary text, the Avesta, combines the Gathas (Zoroaster’s writings) with the Yasna (the scriptural basis of Zoroastrianism). This primary text of the Islamic faith is believed by adherents to contain the exact words of God and therefore provides a full and nonnegotiable blueprint for how to live. Today, there are roughly 190,000 Zoroastrians, mostly concentrated in Iran, Iraq, and India. These practices have seen a small resurgence in the late 20th and early 21st centuries, with some Iranians and Iraqi Kurdish populations adopting Zoroastrianism as a mode of resistance to theocratic governance. In Christianity and World Religions, Revised Edition, Adam Hamilton deals with questions so many of us have about the four major world religions—Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam, and Judaism—and compares the beliefs of each with those of Christianity. ", Learn how and when to remove this template message, A Dictionary of All Religions and Religious Denominations, Sociological classifications of religious movements, "Christians remain world's largest religious group, but they are declining in Europe", "Ethnic vs. Evangelical Religions: Beyond Teaching the World Religion Approach", "The Religions of the Indian Subcontinent Stretch Back for Millennia", "classification of religions | Principles & Significance", "5 Religions with the Most Followers | Huffington Post", "Among Wealthy Nations U.S. It is estimated that there are, currently, over 4.200 religions worldwide. As a reflection of Japanese identity, Shinto observance is not necessarily limited to those who view themselves as religious adherents. Today, most of the world’s four to five million Jains reside in India. Indeed, its present-day scriptures and community remain somewhat insular. Candomblé . ", Daniel Defoe described the original definition as follows: "Religion is properly the Worship given to God, but 'tis also applied to the Worship of Idols and false Deities. Map showing the prevalence of "Abrahamic religion" (purple), and "Indian religion" (yellow) religions in each country. Though Christianity and Islam are today the dominant religious traditions in Africa, informal estimates place the number of adherents to Traditional African Religions at 100 million. The Parliament of the World's Religions was created to cultivate harmony among the world's religious and spiritual communities and foster their engagement with the world and its guiding institutions in order to achieve a just, peaceful and sustainable world. With roughly 14.3 million adherents, practitioners of Judaism comprise about 0.2% of the world’s population. It gained more popular modern visibility when coined by English biologist Thomas Henry Huxley, who in 1869 recognized that incapacity of humans to truly answer questions regarding the divine. Polling around the world has produced an extremely wide variance, with the largest rates of atheism generally seen in Europe and East Asia. Watch with Prime. Based on a 2015 worldwide survey by Pew. Christianity is a monotheistic religion based on the life and teaching of Jesus of Nazareth. Today, Islam is the dominant faith for large swaths of geography, particularly in the Middle East, Southeast Asia, and North Africa. With more than 1.6 billion adherents, Islam is the second largest religion in the world and the chief spiritual identity for more than 24% of the world’s population. Today, the more than 28 million estimated adherents of Sikhism are largely concentrated in India, making it the seventh largest religion in the world. From this emerged social classes, state-entities, and monarchies. As one of the earliest extant religious traditions to emerge from the spiritually fertile Indian subcontinent, Jainism both shares with and diverges from features of the Hindu and Buddhist traditions that also emerged there. If you're seeing this message, it means we're having trouble loading external resources on our website. Its impact on the shape of world history and on present-day world culture is incalculable. The Parliament spurred the creation of a dozen privately funded lectures with the intent of informing people of the diversity of religious experience: these lectures funded researchers such as William James, D. T. Suzuki, and Alan Watts, who greatly influenced the public conception of world religions. Truthfully, this subject defies brevity. Use it to get started on your religious studies essay, to brush up before an exam on religion and world history, or just to learn more about the world around you. Far too many forms of practice exist to be named in one place, but the faith’s three largest branches are Roman Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy, and Protestantism. Determining the actual number of “practicing” atheists is quite difficult, given the absence of a unifying religious organization. Here, individuals, families, and whole groups were displaced from the communities or tribes they called home on the African continent. The Quran and the Islamic legal code known as Sharia inform every aspect of life, from ethics and worship to family matters and business dealings. In this video Dusty takes a look at the century following the death of religion. In Indian culture, different religious philosophies were traditionally respected as academic differences in pursuit of the same truth. Combined, Christianity is the largest religion in the world, with roughly 2.4 billion adherents, or 33% of the total population. Other religions are still practiced by dwindling populations, many living on reservations. Wikipedia identifies a few major native American religions: This is by no means a complete list. This theory began in the 18th century with the goal of recognizing the relative levels of civility in societies, which in … To be freed from oppression in Western society (or Babylon), many Rastafari believe it necessary to resettle adherents in the African homelands. Though many individuals and families descended from these tribes do practice some of the customs of their ancestors, indigenous religious customs have befallen the same broader fate as the Native American peoples. Zoroaster’s influence loomed large in his time and place. The Islamic faith proliferated rapidly through the Middle East, particularly around the three holiest sites of the faith: Mecca, where an awakened Muhammed made his first pilgrimage; Medina, the center of early Islamic faith under Muhammed’s leadership; and Jerusalem, the spiritual capital of the ancient world. Closely related is the idea of agnosticism, which doesn’t profess to know whether there is or isn’t a deity. Actually, that’s an understatement. There’s a lot out there. Check out more study starters and homework tips at The Study Lounge! Religion is a vast subject. Other religions hold the environment sacred as well. Zoroaster’s ideas finally fell out of authority after the Muslim conquest of Persia in the seventh century CE. The Sikh religion came into focus during the late 15th century and draws its tenets of faith, meditation, social justice, and human equality from a scripture called the Guru Granth Sahib. 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