Angered by these acts, Philip II ordered a planned invasion of England. A date of c. 1540 is suggested from two portraits: one a miniature painted by Nicholas Hilliard in 1581 when he was allegedly 42, so born circa 1539, while the other, painted in 1594 when he was said to be 52, would give a birth year of around 1541.  The attack became known as the “singeing of the King’s beard” and delayed the Spanish invasion by a year. For this he was awarded knighthood by Queen Elizabeth I in 1581.  The arms adopted by his nephew Sir Francis Drake, 1st Baronet (1588–1637) of Buckland were the arms of Drake of Ash, but the wyvern without a "nowed" (knotted) tail. The claim that he was a refugee from Roman Catholic persecution was a later pious fiction. , Arms of Sir Francis Drake: Sable, a fess wavy between two pole-stars Arctic and Antarctic argent, Arms of Drake of Ash: Argent, a wyvern wings displayed and tail nowed gules. Drake had Thomas Doughty beheaded on 2 July 1578. , After the raids he then went on to find Sir Walter Raleigh's settlement much further north at Roanoke which he replenished and also took back with him all of the original colonists before Sir Richard Greynvile arrived with supplies and more colonists. He was born in 1615 at England.  A large hotel in Union Square, San Francisco also bears his name. , On 5 June 1579, the ship briefly made first landfall at what is now South Cove, Cape Arago, just south of Coos Bay, Oregon, and then sailed south while searching for a suitable harbour to repair his ailing ship. Drake presented the Queen with a jewel token commemorating the circumnavigation. Two years after she had nosed her way into the Strait of Magellan, the Golden Hind came back into the Atlantic with only 56 of the original crew of 100 left aboard. Standing on a high ridge of land, he first saw the Pacific, that ocean hitherto barred to all but Spanish ships. The Spanish gunners from El Morro Castle shot a cannonball through the cabin of Drake's flagship, but he survived. Drake used the plans that Sir Richard Grenville had received the patent for in 1574 from Elizabeth, which was rescinded a year later after protests from Philip of Spain.  On 17 June, Drake and his crew found a protected cove when they landed on the Pacific coast of what is now Northern California. In the Siege of Coruña Drake and Norreys destroyed a few ships in the harbour of A Coruña in Spain but lost more than 12,000 lives and 20 ships. Drake, like navigators before him, probably reached a latitude of 55°S (according to astronomical data quoted in Hakluyt's The Principall Navigations, Voiages and Discoveries of the English Nation of 1589) along the Chilean coast. Early Years. His second voyage to the West Indies, in company with John Hawkins, ended disastrously at San Juan de Ulúa off the coast of Mexico, when the English interlopers were attacked by the Spanish and many of them killed. Drake is best known for his circumnavigation of the world in a single expedition, from 1577 to 1580. When he was very young (about nine or ten), Francis … This was perhaps the foundation of Drake’s fortune. One of these men was Diego, who under Drake became a free man was also a capable ship builder. Some call Drake a slave trader since as a young man, he served under his cousin John Hawkins, who led some of the earliest English slaving voyages of the Elizabethan era. Francis Drake was born in Tavistock, Devon, England.  , He was the oldest of the twelve sons of Edmund Drake (1518–1585), a Protestant farmer, and his wife Mary Mylwaye. Sir Francis Drake, 1540?–1596. However, there is evidence, he was actually fleeing the law due to his association with the Hawkins family and their involvement in piracy and theft. Birthplace. The Visitations of the County of Devon: Comprising the Heralds' Visitations of 1531, 1564 & 1620, Exeter, 1895, p.292, pedigree of Drake of Ash, Vivian, p.299, pedigree of Drake of Crowndale and Buckland Abbey, Letter to Admiral Henry Seymour written aboard. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. A few weeks later, on 28 January 1596, he died (aged about 56) of dysentery, a common disease in the tropics at the time, while anchored off the coast of Portobelo where some Spanish treasure ships had sought shelter. He passed along the coast like a whirlwind, for the Spaniards were quite unguarded, having never known a hostile ship in their waters. Drake and his men, downhearted, exhausted and hungry, had nowhere to go and the Spanish were not far behind.  King Philip II of Spain allegedly offered a reward of 20,000 ducats for his capture or death, about £6 million (US$8 million) in modern currency. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Fearing the worst, they asked him how the raid had gone. He then plundered Santiago in the Cape Verde islands after which the fleet then sailed across the Atlantic, sacked the port of Santo Domingo, and captured the city of Cartagena de Indias in present-day Colombia. His expedition inaugurated an era of conflict with the Spanish on the western coast of the Americas, an area that had previously been largely unexplored by Western shipping. Drake decided to remain the winter in San Julian before attempting the Strait of Magellan.. On one side is a state portrait of Elizabeth by the miniaturist Nicholas Hilliard, on the other a sardonyx cameo of double portrait busts, a regal woman and an African male. At this time Diego died from wounds he had sustained earlier in the voyage, Drake was saddened at his death having become a good friend. J.L., (Ed.) After erecting a fort and tents ashore, the crew labored for several weeks as they prepared for the circumnavigating voyage ahead by careening their ship, Golden Hind, so to effectively clean and repair the hull. In the UK there are various places named after him, especially in Plymouth, Devon. Buckland Abbey is now in the care of the National Trust and a number of mementos of his life are displayed there.  Drake's father apprenticed him to his neighbour, the master of a barque used for coastal trade transporting merchandise to France. The people of quality dislike him for having risen so high from such a lowly family; the rest say he is the main cause of wars. In 1548, his father, Edmund Drake fled from Devon to Kent. Drake saw that the time was inauspicious and sailed with a small squadron to Ireland, where he served under the earl of Essex and took part in a notorious massacre in July 1575.  Another version the legend says a treasure was left in the cave because the plunder had been more than he could take on board. Francis Drake was an illustrious English naval officer, sea captain, slave trader, explorer, and privateer. Vivian, Lt.Col. The story of Sir Francis Drake and Diego Sir Francis Drake (born in c.1540 and died in 1596) Sir Francis Drake was an English sea captain and privateer (a Zlegal pirate [).He was also a slave trader and … Born In: Tavistock, Devon. Later he sacked the port of Valparaíso further north in Chile, where he also captured a ship full of Chilean wine.. He had official approval to benefit himself and the queen, as well as to cause the maximum damage to the Spaniards. Drake was hailed as the first Englishman to circumnavigate the Earth (and the second such voyage arriving with at least one ship intact, after Elcano's in 1520). He was married in the year 1640 in Portsmouth, Rockingham Co.New … In 1580, Drake purchased Buckland Abbey, a large manor house near Yelverton in Devon, via intermediaries from Sir Richard Greynvile. Drake began … The boulevard runs between Drakes Bay at Point Reyes to Point San Quentin on San Francisco Bay. He remarked as he saw it that he hoped one day an Englishman would be able to sail it – which he would do years later as part of his circumnavigation of the world. Drake's fleet suffered great attrition; he scuttled both Christopher and the flyboat Swan due to loss of men on the Atlantic crossing. Francis Drake views the Pacific Ocean for the first time, from a tree on the Isthmus of Panama, illustration from 1906, by T.H. , For her part, the Queen gave Drake a jewel with her portrait, an unusual gift to bestow upon a commoner, and one that Drake sported proudly in his 1591 portrait by Marcus Gheeraerts now at the National Maritime Museum, Greenwich. Omissions? , At twenty (c. 1563–1564) he made a voyage to the coast of Guinea in a ship owned by William and John Hawkins, some of his relatives from Plymouth. He claimed then to have sailed to the north as far as 48° N, on a parallel with Vancouver [Canada], to seek the Northwest Passage back into the Atlantic. On the death of the barque's owner, Drake was given the barque. The main pieces of evidence against Doughty were the testimony of the ship's carpenter, Edward Bright, who after the trial was promoted to master of the ship Marigold, and Doughty's admission of telling Lord Burghley, a vocal opponent of agitating the Spanish, of the intent of the voyage. Acting on the instructions of Sir Henry Sidney and the Earl of Essex, Sir John Norreys and Drake laid siege to Rathlin Castle. He went to work for a sea captain at a young … This included his incursion into the Pacific Ocean, until then an area of exclusive Spanish interest, and his claim to New Albion for England, an area in what is now the American state of California. … Then he laughed, pulled a necklace of Spanish gold from around his neck and said "Our voyage is made, lads!" Drake Jewel, on loan at the Victoria and Albert Museum, London, This article is about the Elizabethan naval commander. , Francis Drake was born in Tavistock, Devon, England. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Francis-Drake, Royal Museums Greenwich - Biography of Sir Francis Drake, Explorers Pirates and Privateers - Biography of Sir Francis Drake, Spartacus Educational - Biography of Francis Drake, History Learning Site - Biography of Sir Francis Drake, Dictionary of Canadian Biography - Biography of Sir Francis Drake, Francis Drake - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Francis Drake - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). She was laden with treasure and spices, and Drake’s fortune was permanently made. Some Spanish ships were captured, and Drake used their more accurate charts. Francis Eugene Drake was born on January 4 1840, in Lodi, Washtenaw Co., Michigan, USA, to Edward Willett Drake and Orpha Drake. On 15 March 1587, Drake accepted a new commission with several purposes: disrupt the shipping routes to slow supplies from Italy and Andalucia to Lisbon, to trouble enemy fleets that were in their own ports, and to capture Spanish ships laden with treasure. Despite their surrender, Norreys' troops killed all the 200 defenders and more than 400 civilian men, women and children of Clan MacDonnell. His father was a farm worker on the land of Lord Francis … 99. Francis Drake … Member of the Faculty of Modern History, University of Oxford. The most celebrated of Drake's adventures along the Spanish Main was his capture of the Spanish Silver Train at Nombre de Dios in March 1573. , Despite popular lore, it seems unlikely that Drake reached Cape Horn or the eponymous Drake Passage, because his descriptions do not fit the first and his shipmates denied having seen an open sea. The most famous (but probably apocryphal) anecdote about Drake relates that, prior to the battle, he was playing a game of bowls on Plymouth Hoe. His birth date is estimated from contemporary sources such as: "Drake was two and twenty when he obtained the command of the Judith" (1566). According to the English calendar then in use, Drake's date of death was 28 January 1595, as the new year began on 25 March. Drake and his men captured the town and its treasure. He offloaded his captives a short time later, and gave each one gifts appropriate to their rank, as well as a letter of safe conduct. Resenting the Spanish authorities’ claims to regulate their colonies’ trade and impound contraband, Drake later referred to some “wrongs” that he and his companions had suffered—wrongs that he was determined to right in the years to come. Born on the Crowndale estate of Lord Francis Russell, 2nd earl of Bedford, Drake’s father, Edmund Drake, was the son of one of the latter’s tenant farmers. The three remaining ships of his convoy departed for the Magellan Strait at the southern tip of South America. The full achievement is depicted in the form of a large coloured plaster overmantel in the Lifetimes Gallery at Buckland Abbey, Nevertheless, Drake continued to quarter his new arms with the wyvern gules. In 1585, Drake married Elizabeth Sydenham—born circa 1562, the only child of Sir George Sydenham, of Combe Sydenham, who was the High Sheriff of Somerset. In 1595, he failed to conquer the port of Las Palmas, and following a disastrous campaign against Spanish America, where he suffered a number of defeats, he unsuccessfully attacked San Juan de Puerto Rico, eventually losing the Battle of San Juan. That dispute led to "a box on the ear" being given to Sir Francis by Sir Bernard at court, as recorded by John Prince (1643–1723) in his "Worthies of Devon", first published in 1701. In Kent, his father was ordained a deacon and Francis w… "Cave of the Pirate") with Francis Drake. Remains:Burial at sea, … At Cartagena, Drake released one hundred Turks held as slaves. Died:28-Jan-1596. By 9 August 1573, he had returned to Plymouth. Francis Drake was born in Tavistock, Devon around 1540, the eldest of twelve sons.  He served the duration of the parliament and was active in issues regarding the navy, fishing, early American colonisation, and issues related chiefly to Devon. He also added its captain, Nuno da Silva, a man with considerable experience navigating in South American waters. He planned an attack on the Isthmus of Panama, known to the Spanish as Tierra Firme and the English as the Spanish Main. He was buried at sea, supposedly in a lead coffin. This was the point at which the silver and gold treasure of Peru had to be landed and sent overland to the Caribbean Sea, where galleons from Spain would pick it up at the town of Nombre de Dios. Francis Drake was born in Tavistock, Devon, England, sometime between 1540 and 1544. Places there carrying his name include the naval base HMS Drake, Drake's Island, and a shopping centre and roundabout named Drake Circus. …West Indian plantation owners; and Sir Francis Drake circumnavigated the globe (December 13, 1577–September 26, 1580) in search of the riches not only of the East Indies but also of Terra … He renewed his visit the next year for the sole purpose of obtaining information.. Drake was considered a hero in England and a pirate in Spain for his raids.  Claims of the Spanish ship losses vary. There is no known eyewitness account of this incident and the earliest retelling of it was printed 37 years later. Drake's men saw weathered and bleached skeletons on the grim Spanish gibbets. Voyages of Ferdinand Magellan (1519–22) and Francis Drake (1577–80) across the Atlantic Ocean and around the globe. Birthday.  (An account of this may have given rise to subsequent stories of pirates and buried treasure). In the interval between these episodes, he crossed the Isthmus of Panama. There is a recent local movement to rename the boulevard and the high school because of Drake's slave trader past. Born:c. 1540. Nothing could have suited Drake better. Frances Drake, Actress: Mad Love. Although his birth date is not formally recorded, it is known that he was born while the Six Articles were in force. Plymouth Hoe is also home to a statue of Drake. He has Ancestral File number 2VFB-MT. , Elizabeth I awarded Drake a knighthood in 1581 which he received on the Golden Hind in Deptford. He named the surrounding country New Albion and took possession of it in the name of Queen Elizabeth. Frances Drake (born Frances Morgan Dean, October 22, 1912 – January 18, 2000) was an American actress, best known for playing Eponine in Les Misérables (1935). , Drake's exploits made him a hero to the English, but his privateering led the Spanish to brand him a pirate, known to them as El Draque. Wounded, Le Testu was captured and later beheaded. He died on Sep 24 1687 in Piscataway Twp, Middlesex Co., NJ. Drake stayed in the area for almost a year, raiding Spanish shipping and attempting to capture a treasure shipment. Lady Elliott-Drake, the collateral descendant, and final holder of the Drake Baronetcy, argued in her book on 'The Family and Heirs of Sir Francis Drake' that Drake's birth year was 1541. "Drake escaped during the attack and returned to England in command of a small vessel, the Judith, with an even greater determination to have his revenge upon Spain and the Spanish king, Philip II."—". Drake was a major focus in the video game series Uncharted, specifically its first and third instalments, Uncharted: Drake's Fortune and Uncharted 3: Drake's Deception, respectively. Therefore, the remaining leader of the Gaelic defence against English power, Sorley Boy MacDonnell, was forced to stay on the mainland. Drake taught himself navigation as the navigator of a small merchant vessel early in his career. Francis Drake was born in Ireland and came to America after 1653. He completed the second global circumnavigation from 1577 to 1580. Near Lima, Drake captured a Spanish ship laden with 25,000 pesos of Peruvian gold, amounting in value to 37,000 ducats of Spanish money (about £7m by modern standards). Taken as a prize off the Pacific coast of Mexico, it was made of enamelled gold and bore an African diamond and a ship with an ebony hull. He became a member of parliament for Plymouth in 1593. By the early 1560s, he had graduated to the African trade, in which the Hawkins family had an increasing interest, and by 1568 he had command of his own ship on a Hawkins venture of illicit slave-trading in the Spanish colonies of the Caribbean. In 1577 he was chosen as the leader of an expedition intended to pass around South America through the Strait of Magellan and to explore the coast that lay beyond. The last representative of this family was Sir Francis Henry Drake, baronet of Cheltenham Glost, born 1756, died 1839, who had inherited the title on the death of his uncle, Francis Henry Drake, fifth baronet, but not the property, which has passed to Francis … On the night of 29 July, along with Howard, Drake organised fire-ships, causing the majority of the Spanish captains to break formation and sail out of Calais into the open sea.  To document and assert his claim, Drake posted an engraved plate of brass to claim sovereignty for Elizabeth and every successive English monarch. Sugden, John (1990).  The ship's master was so satisfied with the young Drake's conduct that, being unmarried and childless at his death, he bequeathed the barque to Drake.[when?] Learn how and when to remove this template message, "After Colston, figures such as Drake and Peel could be next", "10 Things You May Not Know About Francis Drake", "The Occupants of the ancient office of High Sheriff of Somerset", "Sir Francis Drake and the African Slaves", "The Untold Story of How an Escaped Slave Helped Sir Francis Drake Circumnavigate the Globe", "Entre el mito y la realidad. Boost. Robinson. He was nothing if not ambitious, for his aim was to capture the important town of Nombre de Dios, Pan.  This defeat in all fronts delayed Drake, and he was forced to forgo hunting the rest of the surviving ships and head on to Lisbon.. Even this abusive demonstration of power did not leave the corsair unharmed, as he lost some five hundred men on land, in addition to as many wounded. He was born about 1618 in Devon, England. , Francis Drake married Mary Newman at St. Budeaux church, Plymouth, in July 1569. Unfortunately, his return coincided with a moment when Queen Elizabeth and King Philip II of Spain had reached a temporary truce.  During the Victorian era, in a spirit of nationalism, the story was promoted that Elizabeth I had done the knighting.. Francis Drake was born sometime between 1540 and 1544 in Tavistock, England. , War had already been declared by Phillip II after the Treaty of Nonsuch, so the Queen through Francis Walsingham ordered Sir Francis Drake to lead an expedition to attack the Spanish colonies in a kind of preemptive strike. This was the occasion on which he first met the queen face-to-face and heard from her own lips that she “would gladly be revenged on the king of Spain for divers injuries that I have received.” The explicit object was to “find out places meet to have traffic.” Drake, however, devoted the voyage to piracy, without official reproof in England.  He also served as an officer aboard a West African slave vessel. Sources vary on the dates and the age of Drake. She died 12 years later, in 1581. He, Drake, was appointed Mayor of Plymouth in … Expedition (1577–1580): Five ships (Pelican [renamed Golden Hind], Elizabeth, Marigold, Swan, Christopher [a sixth, Mary, was later captured and added]), 164 men Charge … , Drake's second voyage to the Americas and his second slaving voyage ended in the ill-fated 1568 incident at San Juan de Ulúa. He made landfall at the gloomy bay of San Julian, in what is now Argentina. Francis Drakewas born to Edmund Drake in Devonshire England. The first son was alleged to have been named after his godfather Francis Russell, 2nd Earl of Bedford. Drake formed an alliance with the Cimarrons. Location of death:Pacific Ocean, near Panama. In 1567, Drake and his cousin, John Hawkins, were attacked by a Spanish ship in the Gulf of Mexico. From there he went on to the Philippines, where he watered ship before sailing to the Moluccas. Despite Spanish protests about his piratical conduct while in their imperial waters, Queen Elizabeth herself went aboard the Golden Hind, which was lying at Deptford in the Thames estuary, and personally bestowed knighthood on him. A legend says that when Drake sacked the port he became disappointed over the scant plunder.  Meanwhile, Drake was given the task of preventing any Gaelic Irish or Scottish reinforcements reaching the island.  Historian Mateo Martinic, who examined his travels, credits Drake with the discovery of the "southern end of the Americas and the oceanic space south of it". He was ordained deacon and was made vicar of Upnor Church on the Medway. When the ship's chaplain Francis Fletcher in a sermon suggested that the woes of the voyage in January 1580 were connected to the unjust demise of Doughty, Drake chained the clergyman to a hatch cover and pronounced him excommunicated. He also served as the mayor of Plymouth, England. It was during this expedition that Drake climbed a high tree in the central mountains of the Isthmus of Panama and thus became the first Englishman to see the Pacific Ocean. It is supposed that his final resting place is near the wrecks of two British ships, the Elizabeth and the Delight, scuttled in Portobelo Bay. His birth date is estimated from contemporary sources such as: "Drake was two and twenty when he obtained the command of the Judith" (1566). His family live for a while on a boat on the River Medway in Kent.  During the stay in the strait, crew members discovered that an infusion made of the bark of Drimys winteri could be used as remedy against scurvy. Francis Drake was born in Tavistock, Devon in around 1540 and went to sea at an early age. Drake's hostility towards the Spanish is said to have started with this incident and he vowed revenge. Although Drake was wounded in the attack, which failed, he and his men managed to get away with a great deal of plunder by successfully attacking a silver-bearing mule train. After the sailors waited three days for convenient tides and had dumped cargo. Drake proceeded to enter the churches in fury to sack them and urinate on the goblets.  He was active in issues of interest to Plymouth as a whole, but also to emphasise defence against the Spanish.  The treasure is said to still be there, but those who approach it drown. Captain Francis DRAKE was born in 1615. , At the age of eighteen he was purser of a ship which sailed to the Bay of Biscay. Drake–Norris Expedition also known as the English Armada.  Drake was always a stern disciplinarian, and he clearly did not intend to continue the venture without making sure that all of his small company were loyal to him. He spent the time covered by the next two parliamentary terms engaged in other duties and an expedition to Portugal. The small band of adventurers dragged as much gold and silver as they could carry back across some 18 miles of jungle-covered mountains to where they had left the raiding boats. In Valparaíso, Chile, folklore associates a cave known as Cueva del Pirata (lit. A few weeks later (September 1578) Drake made it to the Pacific, but violent storms destroyed one of the three ships, the Marigold (captained by John Thomas) in the strait and caused another, the Elizabeth captained by John Wynter, to return to England, leaving only the Pelican. Power, Sorley Boy MacDonnell, was forced to take refuge in Falmouth, Cornwall, from where they to. 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